There's numerous freeze safety devices that should have shut your system down prior to rupturing a pipe and contaminating the refrigeration circuit with glycol.
Is your system an "ice builder" (designed to build ice on the coils in the tank and then use the ice as a cooling source during the day) or is it a glycol chiller system that was unfortunately froze up and then ruptured?
If it is an Ice Builder, then it appears the coil simply failed and I'm not aware of a "simple" device that could've protected.
If the system was a glycol chiller system (that is not designed to build ice), then there are pressure and flow controls that can be incorporated to shut the system down when a freeze up could occur. Most of the safeties however rely on operating with the proper glycol concentration- failure to monitor your glycol percentage could also lead to this situation.
Unfortunately you have a real serious problem if the refrigeration system was filled with glycol/water, and depending on the size of the system, your best option might be to replace your cooling system.
It is critical to have a dry and clean refrigeration circuit- with the system contaminated with not only water, but glycol, you have a real challenge to get the system clean and dry enough to that you will have long term success.
I would suggest that you partner with a qualified service contractor to device a detailed plan on cleaning the system up with a combination of dry nitrogen to purge out as much moisture as possible, evacuation to pull the system into a vacuum and boil off any remaining moisture, then aggressively changing both liquid and suction filters/driers until the system tests clean of moisture and also acids. This could also require multiple refrigerant oil changes.
Request a cost bid from the contractor before they begin the work, as I mentioned- it might be more economical to replace the system.
I hope this information is helpful and wish you luck in getting the your system back online.
Pro Refrigeration Inc.