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  1. Replies
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    Biologic growth is not a significant concern with...

    Biologic growth is not a significant concern with RO. There aren't enough "building blocks of life" (nutrients) in that water to foster growth. If the vessel is covered or sealed, then you won't have...
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    A TDS meter is a dead-simple unit. There are...

    A TDS meter is a dead-simple unit. There are units that are much less expensive than the one you cite.

    True accuracy with a TDS meter is not possible and no amount of spending will make it 'more...
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    If you're just measuring water volume, a...

    If you're just measuring water volume, a totalizer (like on a house water meter), is very accurate and reliable. The nutating disc technology is tried and true.
  4. While malt contributes huge amounts of potassium...

    While malt contributes huge amounts of potassium and magnesium to wort, those malt derived components are different from those contributed by the water. I've heard of several brewers complaining...
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    I have used S-05 in Berliner Weisse's and found...

    I have used S-05 in Berliner Weisse's and found that it performed reasonably well, even when the soured wort was in the 3.0 to 3.1 range. I've since found that that pH range is too low for a...
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    Nope. The only calibration solutions needed in a...

    Nope. The only calibration solutions needed in a brewery are the 7 and 4 solutions and neither of them suffer from short exposure to air. The 10 solution and other alkaline solutions like lye and...
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    pH Meters should be calibrated at least once on...

    pH Meters should be calibrated at least once on each brew day. Those 500 ml bottles of calibration solution should get used up in a reasonable amount of time and avoid expiration with that...
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    How old are your pH calibration solutions? Have...

    How old are your pH calibration solutions? Have you performed a stability test on the pH meter and probe.

    The alkalinity level in that water isn't extreme and it should not take a lot of acid to...
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    The softness or hardness of water has only minor...

    The softness or hardness of water has only minor influence on the need for acid in brewing. Alkalinity is the main influence on acid demand.

    For the alkalinity that you're dealing with, Lactic...
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    I find that the flavor contributed by Roast...

    I find that the flavor contributed by Roast Barley is far superior to Black Patent. In addition, if your mashing water has insufficient alkalinity, the presence of those roast grains can drive pH...
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    Water with very low TDS (like RO water), gives pH...

    Water with very low TDS (like RO water), gives pH meters difficulty in measurement. I'm not really surprised that the pH reading is varying. But a more important fact is that the pH of your water...
  12. Bacteria in hot-side water is not necessarily...

    Bacteria in hot-side water is not necessarily detrimental to brewing. But the fact that your RO water is presenting and supporting bacteria, is troubling. That suggests that your water source...
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    If you weren't monitoring the head drop across...

    If you weren't monitoring the head drop across your mash bed while you were pumping, its quite possible that you were pumping at too high a rate. In general, you don't want to impress a head drop of...
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    It's not an insane amount of dissolved solids in...

    It's not an insane amount of dissolved solids in that water, but its pretty close. You should be able to produce a few styles with success, but the level of mineralization is going to make it tough...
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    Even with a 10 bbl brewhouse, I expect that you...

    Even with a 10 bbl brewhouse, I expect that you could get by with a modest RO system and storage tank to provide dilution water for styles that would benefit from that. But for many styles, your...
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    The wort has the highest thermal capacity and...

    The wort has the highest thermal capacity and recirculating that through your bed via some form of vorlauf or pump over is the most effective way of redistributing that heat. Physical mixing of mash...
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    The main problematic component of that water is...

    The main problematic component of that water is the sodium. The alkalinity level can be dealt with by acid neutralization. Unless your brewery is large (say >10bbl), I don't think you'll need much...
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    Should you emulate the water of famous brewing...

    Should you emulate the water of famous brewing centers? Probably not exactly. However, you can review the concentrations of flavor ions from those profiles to help understand what those brewers MIGHT...
  19. In the US, if a treatment system is licensed,...

    In the US, if a treatment system is licensed, land disposal of wastewater biosolids is often regulated. That regulation is typically regardless of the presence of infectious agents. The main...
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    That should be a great starting point for brewing...

    That should be a great starting point for brewing water. The flavor ions are quite low. The main issue is the alkalinity and that is easily neutralized with acid addition.

    You may want RO in your...
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    That is highly mineralized water. You will have...

    That is highly mineralized water. You will have difficulty in brewing most styles well. Embrace your RO savior.
  22. Yes, the sodium, chloride, and alkalinity levels...

    Yes, the sodium, chloride, and alkalinity levels are far higher than you'd prefer in brewing. But the first question to ask is: Has this water been run through a water softener??? I doubt that it has...
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    Salts are the solids of ionic substances. Sodium...

    Salts are the solids of ionic substances. Sodium chloride (table salt) is a salt, as is calcium chloride and magnesium sulfate. The term 'soft' just means that the water has low concentrations of...
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    That water is well suited for typical brewing. It...

    That water is well suited for typical brewing. It may be slightly harder than some may prefer for brewing delicate lagers, but not terrible. The main concern is the fairly high sulfate content and...
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    There are times when you might want to do either...

    There are times when you might want to do either option 1 or 2.

    If your mashing pH is anticipated to be too high, adding all the salts directly to the mashing water may help depress the mashing...
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